356 POLITICAL SCIENCE. rently, by a change of feeling in the community towards the kings, by a certain suspicion of them, and this feeling may have been coincident with inequalities of fortune which gave rise to a democratic element. Hence the ephors themselves were called by some Greek writers the representatives of the demo- cratic element, and this was so far a just opinion, as they could be and often were selected from the inferior rank of Spartans, and became the checks on the growth of the aristo- cratic element in the constitution. Their power was arbi- trary as well as great. "They are competent,'* says Xeno- phon (reip. Lac., viii., 4), "to fine whom they will; and have authority to exact the fine on the spot, and to depose mag- istrates during their offices, to imprison them and even to bring them to capital trial." Their power in checking the kings was certainly an innovation (K. F. Hermann, § 45). They called and managed the assemblies of the citizens, re- ceived and sent ambassadors, arranged campaigns, and a deputation of two of their number accompanied the kings to the wars. We abstain from further particulars. Enough has been said to show the original idea and the additions due to later times. All these additions fastened themselves on the primeval police and judicial power. 2. The Roman tribunate. In the case of this institution, —intended at first as the organ of the flebs to afford aid to such as invoked aid against the magistrates of the citizens with full rights, and although without &n.yimperium, yet clothed with a sacred character,— we have its origin, growth, and ultimate form, with its effi- ciency in the state so fully set forth in history and by writers on the Roman constitution, such as Lange and Mommsen, that it is unnecessary to do more than mention it as a very striking example of an institution growing in competence and importance far beyond its first limits.* The Roman constitution affords several other instances of , the development of a' power or office from another, until it * See Lange. Rom. Alterth., i., § 85, and ii. and iii. passim ; Momm- sen, Rom. Staatsrecht, ii., i. p.'247 and onw.; as also his history.